GOALA Maple Leaf on Mars
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About Me


Zac Trolley is an experienced project engineer with a diverse background and skill set. In addition to his technical aptitude, he is also an intrepid adventurer, dabbling futurist, and talented communicator. Driven by a passion to see humanity expand beyond Earth’s gravity Zac has invested a larger portion of his time to understand how humans could live on Mars. It’s his goal to gain experience building infrastructure everywhere on Earth so that he is on the top of the candidate list when building starts on Mars. 

Zac holds a technical diploma from SAIT, and an electrical engineering degree from Lakehead University and a space studies certificate from the International Space University. He has over 10 years of experience in managing engineering workflows in the Canadian energy sector. In his spare time he enjoys outdoor activities, video games, working on Mars simulations, and growing bonsai trees. 

He lives in Calgary Alberta with his wife and two cats.

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Blog

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Mars One Interviews

SAIT Stories – Jan 30

The Gauntlet – Jan 30

The Press – Jan 26

Foundation for Democratic Advancement – Jan 24

This interview was the first in depth interview I’ve done. Topics like Democracy, law, triage, anarchy and greed are discussed. It was nice to be able to flesh out topics beyond the 5 minute mark. The interview is 40 minutes long, so make some tea, and have a listen. The podcast can be found HERE.

101.5 Kool FM – Jan 22

For this interview, I got to the studio a little early. The DJs were working on other bits and I got to see the radio magic. They were mixing, doing traffic reports, taking calls, editing audio… all very quickly and professionally. It was quite impressive, and the interview was a lot of fun.

CBC The Homestretch – Jan 16

X92.9 The Show – Jan 14

I’m glad my gold houseboating shorts got a mention on this one.

98.5 Virgin Morning Show – Jan 14

I don’t have the source audio for this one, it was recorded from a cellphone by a guy in my office. The interview starts at the 44 second mark.

Calgary Herald – Jan 13

Thanks to Annalise for putting my ramblings down on paper and making me look great.

Calgary Sun – Jan 11

I made page 4 of the paper, that was quite amazing to see.

CTV – Jan 10

There was a video interview that went along with the print article, but I didn’t see it because I don’t have cable TV.

Global News – Jan 6th

The Global TV crew came into my office to get a few sound bites for this news piece. Thanks to Francis for being accommodating to my work schedule and acting nonchalant while bringing cameras into the office during lunch.

CBC TV – Jan 6th

This was the first interview I did after the Mars One announcement. I sent them an email about my acceptance and very soon after they were in my condo with TV cameras. You can read about the experience in my blog post.

Kasi Johnston – Aug 10th

My brother works in radio, and one of his colleagues asked if she could interview me about Mars One. This was before I was even finished my application. Kasi, if I make it to Mars, this will be in the history books.
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Water

Water is essential for life on Earth, and in space as we explore. Water is needed for humans to drink, to grow plants, and to perform washing and chemical reactions. It can also be used as a radiation shield and as rocket fuel. Access to water is essential to human exploration in space. 

Water exists on the Moon, Mars, and asteroids in the form of ice. This ice can be mined, processed, and stored for use in human missions.

Water is the oil of the solar system and those companies who are able to harvest and harness extraterrestrial deposits of water will make Exxon look like a lemonade stand

Bob Richards

Energy

Moving water to space from Earth is very expensive due to our gravity field. A great example of the energy difference between the Moon and Earth is the Saturn 5 rocket. Most of the rocket’s size is to get 3 men off the surface of the Earth. The part of the rocket that takes them off the Moon and back to Earth is significantly less. By using the water that is in space, the effort and costs of transporting water to where it needs to be are greatly reduced.

Extraction

The extraction of water for human use in space is a mining operation. The ice must be collected by gathering large amounts of regolith and heating it so the water evaporates out. This slurry must be processed to remove any impurities such as dust, debris, volatile compounds, and salts. This operation is extremely similar to how the Alberta oil sands extracts oil from the ground.

Alberta has decades of experience in extracting oil from sand and soil. A large portion of these facilities is dedicated to the use of water since it is a vital component in the process. An oil sands facility is in fact more complicated than a regolith water facility would be on the Moon. The province has built a workforce, manufacturing base, and end to end supply chain for this industry. 

I believe that Alberta can transfer the knowledge and capabilities it has developed in the oil sands and be the leader in water mining for the Moon and Mars.

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Contact

Contact Me

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Projects

Coming Soon

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Talks

Recorded Nov 13th 2014 At 30 minute talk I did at the Telus Spark center in Calgary Alberta, during their Destination Mars theme night. This was a talk aimed to answer the most common “why” questions I had received when talking to the public about traveling to Mars.
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Resume

Work History

2018 – Today

Drakken

Manager of Project Execution

2017 – 2018

VEERUM

Product Manger

2015 – 2016

SNC-Lavalin

Project Engineer

2013 – 2014

AMEC

Project Engineer

2011 – 2012

General Dynamics Canada

Junior Systems Engineer

2007 – 2008

Bantrel

Electrical Designer

2005 – 2007

Baker Hughes

Electrical Technician

Education

2014

International Space University

Space Studies Program

2008 – 2011

Lakehead University

Electrical Engineering

2002 – 2004

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT)

Electronics Engineering Technology

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Maple Leafs on Mars

It is my personal mission to ensure that Canada plays a leading role in the human exploration of the solar system. The symbol of success to me is getting the Maple Leaf on Mars. Canada is a recognized leader in space exploration, from the Canadarm to Chris Hatfield, the Canadian flag is a stable of space exploration. I want to ensure this tradition continues.

Canada is a country of wide-open spaces, harsh climates, and resourceful people. Our skills and culture are uniquely suited to develop, test, and integrate space technology into our everyday lives. Canada can be the leader in space infrastructure while improving the Canadian standard of living. 

Once we can figure out how to grow food on Mars, we can grow food where ever it’s needed.

Zac with the Canadian Flag during a simulated Mars mission at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah.
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RESEARCH

LABORATORY TEAM

JOHN DOE

RESEARCH ASSISTANT

JENNIFER DOE

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

JOHNATAN DOE

RESEARCH FELLOW

RESEARCH PROJECTS

PROJECT TITLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

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PROJECT TITLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

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PROJECT TITLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

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PROJECT TITLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo.

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TEACHING

CURRENT
  • NOW
    2010

    ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

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  • NOW
    2008

    TEACHING ASSISTANT

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

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TEACHING HISTORY
  • 2009
    2010

    ADJUNCT PROFESSOR

    OXFORD UNIVERSITY COMPUTING LABORATORY

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  • 2009
    2010

    TEACHING ASSISTANT

    OXFORD UNIVERSITY COMPUTING LABORATORY

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  • 2008
    2009

    TEACHING ASSISTANT

    UNIVERSITY OF NANTES

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SKILLS

PROGRAMMING SKIILLS
web development > Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo tortor Vivam.
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 3 YEARS
Php Asp Ror
mobile development > Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo tortor Vivam.
LEVEL : INTERMEDIATE EXPERIENCE : 4 YEARS
Android Ios Qt SDK
DESIGN SKILLS
Web design > Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscingVivam sit amet ligula non lectus cursus egestas. Cras erat lorem, fringilla quis sagittis in, sagittis inNam leo tortor Nam leo tortor Vivam.
LEVEL : ADVANCED EXPERIENCE : 5 YEARS
Photoshop Sketch Avocode
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WORKS

MY PORTFOLIO
PHOTOGRAPHYUI / UX

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
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INTERIOR

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a auctor sem. Suspendisse egestas nulla eget nunc commodo, et blandit ante tristique. Aliquam dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit. dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit
UI / UX

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a auctor sem. Suspendisse egestas nulla eget nunc commodo, et blandit ante tristique. Aliquam dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit. dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit
UI / UX

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a auctor sem. Suspendisse egestas nulla eget nunc commodo, et blandit ante tristique. Aliquam dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit. dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit
PHOTOGRAPHY

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a auctor sem. Suspendisse egestas nulla eget nunc commodo, et blandit ante tristique. Aliquam dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit. dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit
INTERIOR

PROJECT TITLE

PROJECT TITLE

About The Project
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Fusce a auctor sem. Suspendisse egestas nulla eget nunc commodo, et blandit ante tristique. Aliquam dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit. dignissim nulla tellus, sed pellentesque libero pellentesque et. Donec nec sem mattis, suscipit ligula id, porttitor tortor. Maecenas sed egestas odio, vitae euismod nulla. Duis viverra blandit mi quis rhoncus. Aenean vitae turpis et tortor elementum blandit
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ABOUT

PERSONAL DETAILS
Engineer - Space Evangalist - Futureist

BIO

ABOUT ME

Zac is an eternal optimist. Using his knack for engineering he is constantly looking to build more efficient systems with the right combination of people, tech, and processes. He is an experienced project engineer with a diverse background and skill set. In addition to his technical aptitude, he is also an intrepid adventurer, dabbling futurist, and talented communicator. Driven by his passion to see humanity explore the solar system, he is constantly investigating technologies that can help humanity flourish on Earth while gaining a permanent foothold on the Moon and Mars.

HOBBIES

HOW TO UNWIND

Zac is an avid gamer. He loves playing simulation and 4X strategy games. The challenge of finding the optimal solution within games has led to many a late night. He also enjoys playing cooperative board games and the occasional RPG.

He also prioritizes his physical fitness and spends a few days a week at the gym. The goal of is workouts is to improve his skills at various activities such as boxing, snowboarding, hiking, and obstacle course racing.

EDUCATION

A LIFE LONG ENDEAVOR

Inspired by the images coming back from Mars from the Sojourner rover, Zac undertook a technical education path. He chose electrical as his field of study and obtained a 2-year technical diploma as well as an undergrad in electrical engineering. He is also a graduate of the International Space Univerity and an alumnus of the Mars Desert Research Station.

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RESUME

EDUCATION
  • 2014
    Montreal

    SPACE STUDIES PROGRAM

    International Space University

    Attended a 9-week intensive course on all things space.
  • 2008
    2011
    Thunder Bay

    ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

    Lakehead University

    Received a bachelor's in electrical engineering with a minor in professional ethics. Was the president of the Engineering Student Society,
  • 2002
    2004
    Calgary

    ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

    Southern Alberta Institute of Technology

    A 2-year hands-on technologist degree
SPACE EXPERIENCE
  • 2018
    Utah

    MDRS CREW 188

    Mars Society

    Worked as the Crew Engineer and tasked with maintaining the infrastructure of the Habitat and assist others in their research projects during a 2 week Martian Simulation. Myself and 5 other researchers spent 2 weeks in isolation living as if we were on the Red Planet. We conducted research on NASA plant growth systems, dust accumulation, material abrasion for space suits, and participated in many outreach activities including recording 360 video for VR applications.
WORK EXPERIENCE
  • 2018
    2010
    Calgary Canada

    MANAGER OF OPERATIONS AND PROJECT EXECUTION

    DRAKKEN

    Responsible for the overall success of procedures and tasks in project management, administration, and quality. Involved in the day to day activities in procurement, scheduling, and corporate cost control. Actively involved in the development and maintenance of the company's ISO 90001 quality procedures.
  • 2017
    2018
    Calgary Canada

    PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    VEERUM

    Managed the development of construction industry software which enabled teams to predict and resolve issues in the digital world before they impacted the real world. Worked on Proof of Concept contracts with clients such as Cenovus, GE, Suncor, BHP Billiton, and others. Produced concise, well-written documentation for software development, including functional specifications, domain models, use cases, screen mock-ups, process flows, and activity diagrams.
  • 2015
    2016
    Calgary Canada

    PROJECT ENGINER

    SNC-Lavalin

    Planned and coordinated action items to formalize project scope as well as monitored weekly progress to deliver on time and within budget. EPC support for the Fort Saskatchewan liquid natural gas plant included procurement, logistics, demolition, and detailed engineering. The plant remained operational while engineering and construction activities took place.
  • 2015
    2015
    Calgary Alberta

    PROJECT COORDINATIOR

    Calgary Board of Education

    Maintained detailed coordination with contractors, trades, school administration, and internal staff in order to deliver exceptional quality without disrupting classrooms. The CBE maintains over 270 schools across the city, some over 100 years old. The projects were required to be delivered on non-negotiable timelines and needed to be carefully monitored to achieve these goals. Projects varied from multi-year, multi-phased contracts to weekend repairs ranging from $5k to $250k
  • 2013
    2014
    Calgary Alberta

    PROJECT ENGINEER

    AMEX

    Managed the engineering deliverables in an area under construction at Imperial Oil’s Kearl Lake oil sands mine. I Supervised work flow for technical queries, managed design changes, controlled schedule impacts, and monitored construction interface points. I was tasked with organizing weekly meetings, model reviews, and face-to-face interaction to ensure lasting and collaborative solutions.
  • 2012
    2012
    Fort McMurry Canada

    ENGINEER

    ProTrace Engineering

    Provided technical support for existing and new electrical distribution and systems. Collaborated with senior engineers to produce single line diagrams, load lists, and schedules for greenfield construction power and other electrical systems. Provided engineering and documentation support to the field teams at the Kearl Lake site for mechanical completion activities. I created red-line documents, compiled walk-down packages, and handled vendor information for mechanical completion.
  • 2011
    2012
    Calgary Canada

    JUNIOR SYSTEM ENGINEET

    General Dynamics Canada

    Configured and tested hardware and software communication systems for the Canadian Military. Created, performed, and updated test cases and reports for various military and civilian systems and platforms. Was apart of several field trials that included the participation of active-duty soldiers from several nations. Maintained NATO Secret and ITAR Security clearances.
  • 2007
    2008
    Calgary Alberta

    ELECTRICAL DESIGNER

    Bantrel

    Designed electrical heat trace with a focus on conductibility. Managed workflow and schedule deliverables to streamline multi-discipline design efforts. This required interfacing with mechanical, piping, process, and instrumentation disciplines.
  • 2005
    2007
    Calgary Canada

    ELECTRICAL TECHNICIAN

    Baker Hughes

    Built and tested low voltage power and control systems for mobile oil field equipment. Worked with electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems during the manufacture, design, customization, and commissioning of mobile equipment. Completed several unit life cycles from design to testing while incorporating improvements into the next generation.
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PUBLICATIONS

PUBLISHED PAPERS
SORTING BY DATE
30 Sep 2014

MARS TREATY MAKING WORKSHOP RESULTS FROM ISU SSP14

65th International Astronautical Congress 2014

A paper exploring the possible international treaty ramifications of a permanent human presence on Mars.

Conferences Ian Stotesbury, Caitlin Percy, Zac Trolley, Christina Ciardullo, Matthew Sammons, Michal Moroz, Robert Hubbard, Jens Raymaekers, Richard Blake, Philippe Cyr, Lorenda Ward

MARS TREATY MAKING WORKSHOP RESULTS FROM ISU SSP14

Ian Stotesbury, Caitlin Percy, Zac Trolley, Christina Ciardullo, Matthew Sammons, Michal Moroz, Robert Hubbard, Jens Raymaekers, Richard Blake, Philippe Cyr, Lorenda Ward
Conferences
About The Publication

Abstract

In light of the expanding robotic and impending crewed exploration and settlement of Mars, participants at the International Space University’s 2014 Space Studies Program held in Montreal, Canada, will act as governmental delegations to create a draft text representing a new international treaty regime for Mars. This is the second year the ISU SSP has conducted this Mars Treatymaking Workshop, and is done in conjunction with the SSP14 Space Policy, Economics, and Law department. Some nations have ambitious plans for Mars colonization, while others intend to commercially mine the red planet’s rich mineral resources. The majority of delegations, however, hold fast the provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, whose Article II mandates that “outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.” Can these tensions be resolved in a single treaty for Mars? This paper will present the findings of the ISU SSP participants, including both their impressions and lessons learned from the simulation of international intergovernmental negotiation, drafting, adoption, and related treatymaking experiences, and the substantive legal innovations they find applicable for a new legal regime for Mars.
02 Oct 2018

Technical recommendations to improve MDRS safety, simulation and science.

29th IAA SYMPOSIUM ON SPACE AND SOCIETY

Using their professional experience external to their space analog experience, the crew of MDRS 188 compiled a path forward for the MDRS to increase its safety and usability.

Conferences Selected Dr. Sarah Jane Pell, Mr. Zac Trolley, Mr. Tatsuari Tomiyama,, Dr. Ryan Kobrick,

Technical recommendations to improve MDRS safety, simulation and science.

Dr. Sarah Jane Pell, Mr. Zac Trolley, Mr. Tatsuari Tomiyama,, Dr. Ryan Kobrick,
Conferences Selected
About The Publication

Abstract

We, the Crew 188, offer technical and psychosocial system recommendations based on our experience of the Mars Desert Research Station [MDRS]. Our aim is to help realise future, sustainable programmes of space exploration, utilisation and commercial development. We offer recommendations supporting the pursuit of technical goals drawn from a broad, forward-looking view of the technologies and systems needed including technical engineering, scientific, cultural, political, and societal. A style of ”Martian camping”, MDRS offered amenities to support likely Mars-planetary space activities and experience remote, isolated and extreme habitability. Under today’s operational constraints and an aging facility, the design and operation of MDRS could be much improved. For example, Crew 188 faced a hazardous propane leak in the main habitat highlighting an inadequate response or protection mechanism; below-normal mission standard provisions including reduced water, food and up-link data streams; and the cessation of crew waste removal and water delivery services. Our responses to such challenges led to these recommendations sufficiently well focused to allow tangible progression—and dramatic improvements over current MDRS capabilities—to be realised in the foreseeable future. Future Mars crews will expect to “rough it” but they will also expect the autonomy, agency and security of basic ‘luxury’ provisions to create a home-awayfrom-home that supports a reasonable quality of working life. The Mars Society, and other analogues, could invest a small amount, for a large return on safety, simulation and science priority goals. A robust communications array, a thorough audit of essential health and safety provisions including emergency evacuation protocols; non-toxic waste disposal, Material Safety Data Sheets and up-to-date technical Engineering Schematics of the Habitat systems designs; and the advertised rations of food and water provisions, would ensure better health management of the crew and the local environment. Ultimately the real transformational value lies in the up-take of both public and private enterprise for sufficiently advancing our human capacity for technologies and systems for supporting a higher fidelity of simulation, and operational standards, for future exploration
30 Sep 2014

Open Innovation in Space : Powering a New Era

International Space University

An in-depth analysis of the progression of innovation models and how to apply Open Innovation to the space sector.

Theses SSP 14 Class

Open Innovation in Space : Powering a New Era

SSP 14 Class
Theses
About The Publication
The classical model of innovation behind closed doors is slowly but surely being challenged by the open innovation model that is reshaping the way organizations bring new products and services into the market. This paper reports on the results of an International Space University Team Project focused on the potential, limitations and conditions of success of open innovation in the space sector. The project used ISU’s international, interdisciplinary, intercultural (3Is) approach in order to determine the fit of the open innovation model to the challenges and opportunities in the space sector. Open innovation can be defined as ”innovating with partners by sharing risk and sharing reward”. Conventional approaches to technology development for space, such as spin-offs or spin-ins are no longer sufficient to fully describe the interactions between organizations in today’s R&D landscape. From the Android operating system to 3D printing designs, from crowdsourcing to Wikipedia, a wide range of platforms enable contributors from around the world to work together and develop innovative solutions to very challenging scientific, technical and socio-economic problems. Traditionally, conducting space technology development and launching space missions required massive infrastructure investments, long lead times and large teams of experts. However, internal R&D, dedicated marketing departments and closely guarded intellectual property are no longer the only way to achieve success. Companies such as Space X, Scaled Composites, zero2infinity, NanoSatisfi, Copenhagen Suborbitals, Planet Labs and others work in a fundamentally different way compared to space agencies. Smaller, nimbler teams, significant use of commercial off the shelf technologies, crowdfunding, a more aggressive approach to managing risk and a great motivation to leverage intellectual property are just some of their defining characteristics. In the traditional, closed innovation model, organizations generate, develop and commercialize their own ideas. In contrast, in the open innovation model, organizations aim to commercialize external as well as internal ideas by exploring multiple paths to the market. These paths include launching start-up companies, licensing intellectual property, forming joint ventures and many other mechanisms. By using a case study methodology supported by a critical literature review, the project team highlighted the potential of open innovation in space by identifying its most promising applications as well as its limitations. The advantages and disadvantages of open innovation in space mission design, development and operations were compared to the current closed innovation practices.
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